Engineering Fluid Mechanics


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1 Engineering Fluid Mechanics Eighth Edition Clayton T. Crowe WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY, PULLMAN Donald F. Elger UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO, MOSCOW John A. Roberson WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY, PULLMAN WILEY John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2 Contents PREFACE INTRODUCTION Fluids Row Classification Historical Note Significance of Fluid Mechanics Trends in Fluid Mechanics FLUID PROPERTIES Basic Units System; Extensive and Intensive Properties Properties Involving the Mass or Weight of the Fluid Properties Involving the Flow of Heat Viscosity Elasticity Surface Tension Vapor Pressure FLUID STATICS Pressure Pressure Variation with Elevation Pressure Measurements Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces Buoyancy Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies FLOWING FLUIDS AND PRESSURE VARIATION Velocity and Description of Flow Methods for Developing Flow Patterns Acceleration Euler's Equation The Bernoulli Equation Rotation and Vorticity Pressure Distribution in Rotating Flows The Bernoulli Equation in Lrotational Flow Separation IX
3 VI SIX SEVEN EIGHT NINE CONTROL VOLUME APPROACH AND CONTINUITY PRINCIPLE 5.1 Rate of Flow 5.2 Control Volume Approach 5.3 Continuity Equation 5.4 Cavitation 5.5 Differential Form of the Continuity Equation 5.6 MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE 6.1 Momentum Equation: Derivation 6.2 Interpretation of the Momentum Equation 6.3 Typical Applications 6.4 Additional Applications 6.5 MomentofMomentum Equation 6.6 NavierStokes Equations 6.7 ENERGY PRINCIPLE 7.1 Derivation of the Energy Equation 7.2 Simplified Forms of the Energy Equation 7.3 Application of the Energy, Momentum, and Continuity Principles in Combination 7.4 Concept of the Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines 7.5 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILITUDE 8.1 The Need for Dimensional Analysis 8.2 Dimensions and Equations 8.3 The Buckingham II Theorem 8.4 Dimensional Analysis 8.5 Common Dimensionless Numbers 8.6 Similitude 8.7 Model Studies for Flows Without FreeSurface Effects 8.8 Significance of the Pressure Coefficient 8.9 Approximate Similitude at High Reynolds Numbers 8.10 FreeSurface Model Studies 8.11 SURFACE RESISTANCE 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Surface Resistance with Uniform Laminar Flow 9.3 Qualitative Description of the Boundary Layer
4 Vll Quantitative Relations for the Laminar Boundary Layer Quantitative Relations for the Turbulent Boundary Layer BoundaryLayer Control FLOW IN CONDUITS ShearStress Distribution Across a Pipe Section Laminar Flow in Pipes Criterion for Laminar or Turbulent Flow in a Pipe Turbulent Flow in Pipes Flow at Pipe Inlets and Losses from Fittings Pipe Systems Turbulent Flow in Noncircular Conduits DRAG AND LIFT 11.1 Basic Considerations 11.2 Drag of TwoDimensional Bodies 11.3 Vortex Shedding from Cylindrical Bodies 11.4 Effect of Streamlining 11.5 Drag of Axisymmetric and ThreeDimensional Bodies 11.6 Terminal Velocity 11.7 Effect of Compressibility on Drag 11.8 Lift 11.9 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Wave Propagation in Compressible Fluids MachNumber Relationships Normal Shock Waves Isentropic Compressible Flow Through a Duct with Varying Area Compressible Flow in a Pipe with Friction FLOW MEASUREMENTS Instruments for the Measurement of Velocity and Pressure Instruments and Procedures for Measurement of Flow Rate Measurement in Compressible Flow Accuracy of Measurements TURBOMACHINERY 14.1 Prooeller Theorv
5 AxialFlow Pumps RadialFlow Machines Specific Speed Suction Limitations of Pumps Centrifugal Compressors Turbines Viscous Effects VARIED FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS Energy Relations in Open Channels The Hydraulic Jump Surge or Tidal Bore Gradually Varied Flow in Open Channels APPENDK ANSWERS TO EVEN PROBLEMS INDEX Al A
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