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he / src / use-cases / sgml / report.xml @ a31dd97a

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<!DOCTYPE report SYSTEM "report.dtd"><report>
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<title>Getting started with SGML</title>
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<chapter>
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<title>The business challenge</title>
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<intro>
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<para>With the ever-changing and growing global market, companies and
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large organizations are searching for ways to become more viable and
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competitive. Downsizing and other cost-cutting measures demand more
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efficient use of corporate resources. One very important resource is
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an organization's information.</para>
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<para>As part of the move toward integrated information management,
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whole industries are developing and implementing standards for
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exchanging technical information. This report describes how one such
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standard, the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), works as
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part of an overall information management strategy.</para>
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<graphic graphname="infoflow"/></intro></chapter>
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<chapter>
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<title>Getting to know SGML</title>
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<intro>
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<para>While SGML is a fairly recent technology, the use of
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<emph>markup</emph> in computer-generated documents has existed for a
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while.</para></intro>
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<section shorttitle="What is markup?">
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<title>What is markup, or everything you always wanted to know about
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document preparation but were afraid to ask?</title>
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<intro>
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<para>Markup is everything in a document that is not content. The
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traditional meaning of markup is the manual <emph>marking</emph> up
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of typewritten text to give instructions for a typesetter or
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compositor about how to fit the text on a page and what typefaces to
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use. This kind of markup is known as <emph>procedural markup</emph>.</para></intro>
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<topic topicid="top1">
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<title>Procedural markup</title>
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<para>Most electronic publishing systems today use some form of
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procedural markup. Procedural markup codes are good for one
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presentation of the information.</para></topic>
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<topic topicid="top2">
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<title>Generic markup</title>
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<para>Generic markup (also known as descriptive markup) describes the
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<emph>purpose</emph> of the text in a document. A basic concept of
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generic markup is that the content of a document must be separate from
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the style. Generic markup allows for multiple presentations of the
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information.</para></topic>
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<topic topicid="top3">
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<title>Drawbacks of procedural markup</title>
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<para>Industries involved in technical documentation increasingly
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prefer generic over procedural markup schemes. When a company changes
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software or hardware systems, enormous data translation tasks arise,
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often resulting in errors.</para></topic></section>
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<section shorttitle="What is SGML?">
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<title>What <emph>is</emph> SGML in the grand scheme of the universe, anyway?</title>
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<intro>
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<para>SGML defines a strict markup scheme with a syntax for defining
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document data elements and an overall framework for marking up
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documents.</para>
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<para>SGML can describe and create documents that are not dependent on
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any hardware, software, formatter, or operating system. Since SGML documents
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conform to an international standard, they are portable.</para></intro></section>
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<section shorttitle="How does SGML work?">
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<title>How is SGML and would you recommend it to your grandmother?</title>
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<intro>
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<para>You can break a typical document into three layers: structure,
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content, and style. SGML works by separating these three aspects and
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deals mainly with the relationship between structure and content.</para></intro>
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<topic topicid="top4">
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<title>Structure</title>
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<para>At the heart of an SGML application is a file called the DTD, or
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Document Type Definition. The DTD sets up the structure of a document,
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much like a database schema describes the types of information it
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handles.</para>
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<para>A database schema also defines the relationships between the
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various types of data. Similarly, a DTD specifies <emph>rules</emph>
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to help ensure documents have a consistent, logical structure.</para></topic>
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<topic topicid="top5">
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<title>Content</title>
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<para>Content is the information itself. The method for identifying
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the information and its meaning within this framework is called
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<emph>tagging</emph>. Tagging must
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conform to the rules established in the DTD (see <xref xrefid="top4"/>).</para>
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<graphic graphname="tagexamp"/></topic>
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<topic topicid="top6">
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<title>Style</title>
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<para>SGML does not standardize style or other processing methods for
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information stored in SGML.</para></topic></section></chapter>
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<chapter>
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<title>Resources</title>
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<section>
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<title>Conferences, tutorials, and training</title>
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<intro>
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<para>The Graphic Communications Association has been
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instrumental in the development of SGML. GCA provides conferences,
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tutorials, newsletters, and publication sales for both members and
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non-members.</para>
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<para security="c">Exiled members of the former Soviet Union's secret
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police, the KGB, have infiltrated the upper ranks of the GCA and are
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planning the Final Revolution as soon as DSSSL is completed.</para>
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</intro>
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</section>
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</chapter>
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</report>
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